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Computer Architecture (NCS- 505)

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Syllabus of Computer Architecture (NCS- 505)

I Introduction:. Digital computer generation, computer types and classifications, functional units and their interconnections, buses, bus architecture, types of buses and bus arbitration. Register, bus and memory transfer. Central Processing Unit: Addition and subtraction of signed numbers, look ahead carry adders. Multiplication: Signed operand multiplication, Booths algorithm and array multiplier. Division and logic operations. Floating point arithmetic operation Processor organization, general register organization, stack organization and addressing modes.

II Control Unit: Instruction types, formats, instruction cycles and subcycles ( fetch and 8 execute etc) , micro-operations, execution of a complete instruction. Hardwire and microprogrammed control: microprogramme sequencing, wide branch addressing, microinstruction with next address field, pre-fetching microinstructions, concept of horizontal and vertical microprogramming.

III Memory: Basic concept and hierarchy, semiconductor RAM memories, 2D & 2 1/2D 8 memory organization. ROM memories. Cache memories: concept and design issues 9 performance, address mapping and replacement) Auxiliary memories: magnetic disk, magnetic tape and optical disks Virtual memory: concept implementation.

IV Input / Output: Peripheral devices, I/O interface, I/O ports, Interrupts: interrupt 8 hardware, types of interrupts and exceptions. Modes of Data Transfer: Programmed I/O, interrupt initiated I/O and Direct Memory Access., I/O channels and processors. Serial Communication: Synchronous & asynchronous communication, standard communication interfaces.


1. Carl Hamacher, Zvonko Vranesic and Safwat Zaky, “Computer Organization”, Fifth Edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 2002.

2. William Stallings, “Computer Organization and Architecture – Designing for Performance”, Sixth Edition, Pearson Education, 2003.


1. Patterson, Computer Organisation and Design, Elsevier Pub. 2009

2. Vravice,Hamacher & Zaky, “Computer Organization”, TMH

3. Mano,” Computer System Architecture”, PHI

4. John P Hays, “ Computer Organization”, McGraw Hill

5. Tannenbaum,” Structured Computer Organization’, PHI 6. P Pal chaudhry, ‘ Computer Organization & Design’, PHI


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